杂志信息网-创作、查重、发刊有保障。

Design and Fabrication of Ceramic Catalytic Membrane Reactors for Green Chemical Engineering Applications

更新时间:2016-07-05

1.Introduction

The chemical industry,which includes the petrochemical and biochemical industries,plays a key role in the global economy,and reactions and separations are key processes in the chemical industry.Unfortunately,the most conventional industrial separation processes,such as distillations,are very energy intensive.Therefore,improving the efficiency of reactions and separations is becoming essential in solving environmental and energyrelated problems.Membrane separation is an alternative separation technique that can be performed efficiently on a large scale,and that is competitive in terms of both energy and overall cost[1-4].The integration of reactions(mostly catalytic reactions)with the separation of desired products has attracted considerable attention from researchers in science and Engineering.The membrane-based combination of separations with catalytic reactions is the concept behind catalytic membrane reactors(CMRs).The most representative features of CMRs are their selective removal of a product,retention of the solid phase(such as a solid catalyst),distribution of a reactant,and catalyst support(in some cases,the membrane itself acts as a catalyst)[1-4].CMRs do not only combine membrane separation with a catalytic process;rather,a synergy is created between the two processes that integrally couples them into a single unit.Green and sustainable chemistry and chemical engineering with lower energy consumption,lower pollution,and enhanced performance can be achieved via the implementation of CMRs.Due to the harsh conditions of most catalytic reactions,which include high temperature,high pressure,and the existence of corrosive gases or solutions(including both basic and acidic solutions),most CMRs use inorganic membranes.These inorganic membranes,which are typically ceramic membranes(e.g.,metal oxides),have obvious advantages in terms of chemical and thermal stability,fouling resistance,mechanical strength,and lifetime compared with polymeric membranes.These advantages have given inorganic membranes such as ceramic membranes a wide application in CMRs.

One type of CMR is based on the dense ceramic membrane,which is a type of gas-separation membrane.Perovskite-type mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes are one of the most studied dense ceramic membranes.These membranes have a generic composition of ABO3,where A is a lanthanide,an alkaline-earth element,or a mixture of the two,while B is normally a transition element.The properties of perovskite-type membranes are closely associated with the A-and B-site cations and their composition.At an elevated temperature(normally higher than 700°C),these membranes simultaneously exhibit oxygen ionic and electronic conductivities,and have a theoretical 100%selectivity to oxygen.The most attractive qualities of these membranes are their high oxygen flux(and permselectivity)and high catalytic activity.Certain important gas-phase catalytic processes,such as the utilization of natural gas,the production of hydrogen,and the treatment of greenhouse gases,can be carried out in CMRs based on perovskite-type membranes.Thus,this type of CMRs has often been reviewed during the last decade.Examples of such reviews include Dixon[1],Bouwmeester[5],Sanchez Marcano and Tsotsis[2],Yang et al.[6],Liu et al.[7],Dong et al.[4],Thurs field et al.[3],and Wei et al.[8].In addition,several excellent reviews have been written on mixed-conducting membrane materials.At present,a book chapter written by Bouwmeester and Burggraaf[9]in 1997 and a review paper written by Sunarso et al.[10]in 2008 are the definitive references for material theory and fundamental studies.

表1 显示,实施PBL教学前,护生评判性思维能力7个亚类中,3个的均值在40分以上,说明护生具有正性评判性思维能力,其余4个均值在30~40分,说明其评判性思维能力处于中等水平;实施PBL教学后,7个亚类中6个的均值在40分以上,说明护生具有正性评判性思维能力,1个的均值在30~40分,说明其评判性思维能力处于中等水平。

The other type of CMRs is based on a porous ceramic membrane and is mainly used for heterogeneous catalytic processes.In heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the presence of suspended ultra fine or nano-sized catalysts,a membrane with an appropriate pore size can effectively separate the catalysts from the reaction slurry.Catalyst separation and reactant distribution can be simultaneously achieved with an appropriate reactor configuration design,which can thus intensify the catalytic reaction in terms of selectivity and yield.CMRs in hybrid photocatalysis-membrane processes have often been reviewed;examples include a monograph by Ollis[11]and works by Molinari and Palmisano[12],Augugliaro et al.[13],and Mozia[14].

Stewart结构具有刚度高、对称性好、结构紧凑以及解耦特性好等优点,特别适合作为六维力传感器力敏元件结构[1]。

This article reviews the state of the art for ceramic CMRs,and includes:①dense ceramic membrane reactors based on a perovskite-type mixed-conducting membrane and②porous ceramic membrane reactors used for heterogeneous catalysis.We realize that a comprehensive review of this ever-widening and fast-growing field is almost impossible to provide within a single review article.Therefore,materials and theories are not discussed in detail,although some newly developed materials are brie fly introduced in the discussion on special applications.In addition,this review does not cover the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis and high-performance catalysts in porous CMRs,or the use of solid electrolytes and palladium membranes in dense CMRs.Rather,we seek to review new developments in and innovative uses of dense and porous CMRs during the last decade.Within these restrictions of scope,we also intend to present the most representative work performed by our group on CMRs during that period.

Comparative research on construction schemes for completing the closure of flyovers crossing national roads in open traffic conditions

2.Dense ceramic membrane reactors

2.2.1.Syngas and hydrogen production

2.1.Membrane architecture

Membrane architecture is important in determining the performance of a CMR.There are three main types of ceramic membrane architectures:disk-like(or planar)membranes,tubular membranes,and hollow fiber(HF)membranes.Disk-like membranes with a limited membrane area are usually used for kinetics studies because of their simple fabrication procedure.In contrast,a planar membrane can be fabricated on a very large scale using a tapecasting technique[15-17].As shown in Fig.1(a)[18],a multiple planar stack can provide a large membrane area.However,many difficulties have appeared in the engineering of such membranes,such as high-temperature sealing.For tubular membranes,which are normally prepared by a paste extrusion[19-23]or isostatic pressing[19,24-26],as shown in Fig.1(b)[27],the sealing dif ficulty can be easily solved by keeping the sealing part outside of the high-temperature zone;this ensures that the temperature of the sealing part is reasonably low in order to obtain an excellent seal.In this case,low-cost polymeric sealants[28,29]are preferable to expensive metal(e.g.,silver and gold),ceramic,or glass sealants[30-33].However,a tubular membrane usually has a small packing density(defined as the membrane area per membrane tank volume)due to its relatively thick wall and large diameter.To avoid issues of small packing density and sealing difficulty,HF membranes,as shown in Fig.1(c)and(d)[20],fabricated via a phase-inversion spinning/sintering technique are currently the most popular architecture for engineering applications,including CMRs,and will be discussed in detail later.

A dense CMR offers several potential advantages for the conversion of methane,and its application to this process has been extensively studied in the past several years[38,51-55].In this process,air is supplied to one side of the membrane and methane is supplied to the other side of the membrane.In this configuration,air is used to replace pure oxygen,which is normally obtained from air-separation plants equipped with an expensive cryogenic separation unit.The POM is an exothermic reaction,and the gradual introduction of oxygen via the membrane reduces the risk of thermal runaway while simultaneously enhancing the yield of the desired products.One of the challenges in the commercialization process of this kind of membrane is long-term stability.In past years,single-layer membrane(normally consisting of only one material)reactors have received intensive attention.However,it is extremely challenging to design a single-layer membrane that has both a high oxygen permeation and a high stability when exposed to a complex gas environment(containing CO2,H2,H2O,and H2S)on the reaction side.

Fig.1.(a)Mixed-conducting membranes developed by Air Products and Chemicals,Inc.,from a disk-like membrane(far left)to a commercial-scale wafer-like membrane(far right)[18];(b)tubular membrane fabricated by means of isostatic pressing(1)or extrusion(2-4)[27];(c,d)the microstructure of HF membranes based on mixed-conducting materials[20].

Fig.2.Scanning electron micrograph(SEM)morphology of(a)an asymmetric disk-like membrane fabricated by means of the co-sintering technique[37]and(b)an asymmetric tubular membrane fabricated by means of a combination of the spin-spray and co-sintering techniques[42].

Over the last decade,HF membranes have garnered more attention due to their unique asymmetric multilayer structures,which are prepared using a phase-inversion spinning/sintering technique[20,43-45].Compared with conventional planar or tubular configurations,HF membranes(Fig.1(c)and(d))have a much greater packing density(the diameter of a single membrane is less than 1 mm)and thin separating dense layer(less than 50μm);they also integrate different types of porous layers(i.e., finger-like layers and sponge-like layers).This architecture provides a much larger gas/membrane interface and lower mass-transfer resistance,and leads to an enhancement of surface exchange and thus permeation rates.However,the greatest disadvantage of single-channel HF membranes is their low mechanical strength,which is due to the low mechanical strength of the supporting porous layer.This disadvantage restricts the use of such membranes in further industrial applications.A multichannel design can grant an HF membrane a larger permeation area for a given volume(i.e.,a higher membrane-packing density)and,most importantly,can provide greater mechanical strength(Fig.3)[46-49].Zhu et al.developed a multichannel hollow fiber(MCHF)membrane using SrFe0.8Nb0.2O3-δ[47]and Nb2O5-doped SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ(SCFNb)[49].The MCHF membrane has a breaking load that is three to six times greater than that of a conventional single-channel HF membrane,and a higher oxygen permeation flux.This membrane is considered to be a promising architecture for CMRs.

2.2.Applications of dense CMRs

Fig.3.(a)Image of the precursor and membrane of multichannel hollow fiber[49];(b,c)cross-sectional SEM images of an HF membrane[47].

A membrane naturally separates a reactor into two chambers,and some of the species involved can selectively permeate through the membrane.Thus,the major functions of a dense membrane in a dense CMR can be classified into three categories.First,the membrane acts as a distributor for one of the reactants[50].Given the high oxygen flux(and permselectivity)of a perovskite-type membrane,reactions can take place at the oxygen permeation side of the membrane.The dosing of oxygen can be easily and precisely controlled,which lowers the risk of thermal runaway in the case of an exothermic reaction.In addition,a better yield of intermediate oxidation products can be obtained because such reactors can work with a lower partial pressure of oxygen.Typical examples of processes that can benefit from these advantages include the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons[38,51-55],oxidative coupling of hydrocarbons[56-60],and oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons[61-64].The second major function of a membrane in a CMR is to selectively remove a species.This does not simply involve separating one species from a mixture;it also—and most importantly—involves shifting a chemically equilibrated reaction in a desired direction by selectively removing one of the in situ products from the reaction side of the membrane.Typical reactions that benefit from this function include hydrogen production[65-68]and the decomposition of oxygen-containing compounds[55,65-75].The third major function involves coupling reactions.A CMR comprises two chambers separated by a membrane.Reactions can take place on both sides of the membrane,which makes it possible to couple multiple reactions in a CMR.In a coupling CMR,the product of a reaction on one side of the membrane,which permeates the membrane,can be the reactant for a second reaction on the other side of the membrane.In this way,the conversions of both reactions can be enhanced.Furthermore,an auto-thermal reactor can be constructed by coupling endothermic and exothermic reactions in a CMR.A typical case is the coupling decomposition of oxygen-containing gases(CO2,N2O,and H2O)with a POM reaction[55,70-73].In the remainder of this paper,we focus on the POM and TDCD applications,as they are very good examples to illustrate the basic functions of a dense ceramic CMR and its integration.Technical issues,membrane design,and optimizations are discussed below based on these two specific applications.

This section provides a brief review of dense CMRs that are based on perovskite-type mixed ionic-electronic conducting materials.Membrane reactor design,performance,and applications related to the utilization of natural gas(e.g.,the partial oxidation of methane(POM))and biofuels(e.g.,ethanol oxidative steam reforming),and the treatment of greenhouse gases(e.g.,thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide(TDCD))are presented and discussed.Reactions such as the POM and TDCD are taken as model systems to illustrate dense CMRs design and optimization for a given application.

在考核上,智慧课堂可以利用教室的人脸自动识别技术对学生的面授课出勤情况进行自动统计,PC和移动终端自动记录学生的在线学习痕迹,自动统计其参与在线学习活动的情况,并形成报表,供教师参考。教师不仅可以准确了解学生的出勤情况,还可以通过前后数据比对,了解全部学生的学习态度、能力和习惯,并可就此动态调整课程内容。

At present,the POM reaction,shown in Eq.(1),is considered to be the most promising process for methane(CH4)conversion,because it is a mild exothermic reaction with high selectivity and a desirable hydrogen/carbon monoxide(H2/CO)ratio of 2:1.

宋仁宗时,朝野上下弥漫着一股送礼之风。包拯对这股送礼收礼之风历来持反对意见,几次上疏皇帝,请求颁昭禁止官员之间的送礼收礼的现象,以开廉洁之风。

For a given material,the oxygen flux in a dense ceramic membrane is essentially related to the membrane thickness.The oxygen flux can be greatly increased by thinning the membrane to below a characteristic value[9,34].However,ceramic membranes are brittle and weak to shearing and tension.A membrane cannot support itself when it is very thin(i.e.,less than 500μm).This is the main challenge for disk-like,planar,or tubular membranes.A supported membrane(or asymmetric membrane),which comprises a thin,dense separation layer fabricated on a mechanically strong porous support layer,is considered to be a promising membrane geometry to enhance the oxygen flux without sacrificing mechanical strength.This type of geometry requires a good matching of thermal and chemical compatibility—and hence a good interfacial bonding without serious solid-state reactions—between the two layers,as well as a defect-free,thin,and dense layer for a good,supported,dense ceramic membrane[35].Jin et al.[36]and Dong et al.[37]proposed a co-sintering technique to prepare asymmetric membranes with an ultra-thin separation layer.In this technique,a precursor of the separation layer was coated onto a green support by means of spin coating or co-pressing with a substrate powder material using a uniaxial press.After hightemperature sintering,an asymmetric membrane was formed(Fig.2(a))[37].This method can be extended to create planar,tubular,and HF membranes with multiple layers[38-41].This technique shows great potential for preparing asymmetric tubular membranes and overcoming the abovementioned thickness limitation.Liu et al.[42]recently reported a SrCo0.4Fe0.5Zr0.1O3-δ(SCFZ)asymmetric tubular membrane that was fabricated by means of a co-sintering technique.A green tubular SCFZ support was coated with an SCFZ precursor using a spin-spray technique[42].After sintering,a 20μm dense layer was obtained(Fig.2(b))[42].This work demonstrates a simple and robust strategy for the preparation of a tubular asymmetric membrane.

A multilayer membrane—in which the material of each layer may be the same or different—has been proposed,in which the requirements for permeability and stability are segregated into different layers[76].As shown in Fig.4(a),a dual-layer configuration was designed.The dense layer is made of 0.5 wt%SCFNb,which has a high oxygen permeability,and the porous layer is made of Sr0.7Ba0.3Fe0.9Mo0.1O3-δ(SBFM),which shows an excellent reduction tolerance(e.g.,in hydrogen).The SCFNb layer is protected by the SBFM porous layer.A non-zero oxygen partial pressure zone was created near the porous/dense interface,which was attributed to a sufficiently high oxygen permeability of the SCFNb separation layer.This dual-layer membrane reactor design keeps the reaction site away from the surface of the dense layer and can be operated steadily for more than 1500 h with no significant performance degradation(Fig.4(b)).

It is possible to construct an auto-thermal reactor in order to couple an endothermic POM reaction with exothermic reactions such as steam reforming in a CMR.Such a reactor also provides more flexibility for tuning the H2/CO ratio.Zhang et al.[77]studied a combination of the POM with steam reforming in a tubular CMR based on an Al2O3-doped SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δ(SCFA)membrane.Zhu et al.[78]then proposed an auto-thermal process that couples the oxidative steam reforming of ethanol(OSRE)with watersplitting(WS)reactions in a dense CMR(Fig.5).The in situ oxygen is removed from the water side of the membrane and then reacts with ethanol to produce hydrogen on the other side of the membrane.At 750°C,the hydrogen production rates from the lumen and shell sides are 6.8 and 1.8 mL·cm-2·min-1(standard temperature and pressure),respectively.

2.2.2.Thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide

涑水河位于山西省运城市境内,发源于绛县陈村峪,在永济市独头村附近注入黄河。河道干流全长220 km,流域面积5 545 km2,主要支流有洮水河、白沙河、姚暹渠等。属黄河一级支流。

The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and oxygen is considered to be a potential route for carbon dioxide capture and utilization.However,carbon dioxide decomposition is limited by its thermodynamic equilibrium.To achieve a high conversion,high-density energy inputs such as a very high temperature(> 1727 °C)are necessary in a fixed-bed reactor.Integrating the TDCD and POM reactions in a dense CMR shows a remarkable advance in the utilization of carbon dioxide to supply oxygen for the POM reaction[70,73,79-81].As shown in Fig.6(a),a dense CMR based on a disk-like SCFZ membrane was designed for the coupling of the TDCD and POM reactions.The TDCD reactions take place on one side of the membrane in the presence of a supported palladium(Pd)-based catalyst,and methane reacts with oxygen(which permeates from the TDCD side)over a supported nickel(Ni)-based catalyst on the other side of the membrane.At 900°C,the carbon monoxide selectivity and carbon dioxide conversion reached 100%and 15.8%,respectively[70].For given external conditions,the decomposition of carbon dioxide benefits from the increase of oxygen permeation flux[81].Normally,the oxygen permeation flux can be promoted by decreasing the thickness of the membrane(i.e.,when bulk diffusion is the rate-determining step).Zhang et al.[79]performed coupling reactions using an SCFA thin tubular membrane with a reduced thickness,which gave it a higher oxygen flux than a disk-like membrane.At 950°C,the carbon dioxide conversion reached approximately 17%,which is higher than the conversion obtained when using a disc-like membrane at the same operation temperature.

Compared with catalysts that are based on bulk materials,a nano-sized catalyst often exhibits superior catalytic properties.However,the high surface energy causes nano-sized catalysts to be easily adsorbed onto the components of the system during catalyst recovery.It has been demonstrated that porous ceramic membranes can completely remove nano-sized nickel catalysts(~60 nm)from a reaction slurry[101].However,the loss of nanosized nickel particles in the slurry and the formation of caking on the membrane surface cause a degradation of the permeation flux.Loading metal nanoparticles onto membrane surfaces or into membrane pores is considered to be a promising method for solving the abovementioned problems[102-107].However,poorly adhered metal particles can easily be removed from the membrane surface during operation.Chen et al.[102]developed an improved fabrication technique to enhance the adhesion of metal particles,such as palladium(Pd),to the membrane surface by silanizing the membrane withγ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane.A more uniform distribution of Pd nanoparticles and a smaller particle size were obtained.The research group then proposed a flow-through method[104]to increase the loading amount of Pd.Pd nanoparticles can be deposited not only on the membrane surface,but also in the membrane pores,by letting the solution flow through the membrane.The combination of both surface silanization and the flow-through method resulted in a significant improvement of the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol,compared with the traditional impregnation method[104].

Two main configurations of porous CMRs for heterogeneous catalysis are commonly discussed in the literature:side-stream and submerged configurations[84-88].In the side-stream c on figuration,the reactions occur in a reaction vessel(which is usually stirred)and product separation is performed in a crossflow membrane filtration unit that is placed outside of the reaction vessel(Fig.9(a)).The reaction zone and separation zone are segregated by the membrane,which benefits membrane replacement,cleaning,and scaling up,and which permits more flexibility.However,in the side-stream configuration,significant catalyst loss can occur in the surfaces or pores of the membrane,the pipework,and the pumping system.In addition,the use of a recirculation loop increases the energy cost.In contrast,in the submerged configuration,the membrane is located in the reaction vessel,where it is submerged under the liquid(Fig.9(b)),and the permeate is removed using a pump or gravity.Thus,a major advantage of the submerged configuration is that the catalyst loss and energy consumption are much less than in the side-stream configuration[89].Zhong et al.[90]and Chen et al.[91]studied the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol over nickel nanoparticles in a membrane reactor using the side-stream and submerged configurations,respectively.A much more stable reaction rate over time was observed in the submerged configuration,and it was noted that a lower surface area in the recirculating loop and a high flow rate favored the suppression of the membrane-fouling form adhesion of nickel nanoparticles.The submerged configuration provides a more compact reactor system due to the integration of the reaction and separation zones into a single unit.However,the membrane area per reactor volume is restricted due to the limited reactor volume.From this point of view,the side-stream configuration is beneficial in some circumstances for scaling up.

Fig.4.(a)Schematic diagram of a porous/dense dual-layer composite membrane;(b)CO selectivity(S CO),H2 production(P H2),CH4 conversion(X CH4),O2 permeation flux(J O2),and H2/CO ratio as a function of time in the dual-layer composite membrane reactor[76].

Fig.5.Schematic diagram of the OSRE coupled with WS in a thin tubular membrane reactor[78].

Fig.6.Schematic diagram of membrane reactors for TDCD and POM with(a)a single-layer membrane[70]and(b)a triple-layer composite membrane[73].Vo..is the oxygen vacancy;O×o is the lattice oxygen;LSM-YSZ is La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ-yttria-stabilized zirconia.

Having the POM occur on the opposite side of the membrane to the TDCD can increase the driving force and promote carbon dioxide decomposition.However,the membrane in this case was actually in a much more complicated environment,as one side was exposed to CO2/CO while the other side was exposed to CH4/CO/H2.As discussed in the previous section,a compromise between high oxygen permeability and sufficient chemical stability is necessary in a membrane reactor.Therefore,a triple-layer composite structure(porous/dense/porous)for the TDCD and POM coupling reaction was proposed[73](Fig.6(b)).SBFM and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ-yttria-stabilized zirconia(LSM-YSZ)were fabricated as porous layers on the dense SCFNb membrane,and were closed to the POM and TDCD sides,respectively.The functions of reduction resistance,carbon dioxide resistance,and high permeability were segregated to the SBFM,LSM-YSZ,and SCFNb layers,respectively.The essence of this design is that each of the layers plays its respective function and synergistically contributes to improve the stability and conversion.This novel reactor attained a 20.58%carbon dioxide conversion at 900°C,and could be steadily operated for more than 500 h[73].

2.3.Current challenges and difficulties in dense CMRs

In addition to membrane reactor design,many technological gaps remain to be filled forthe successfulapplication ofdense CMRs on industrial scales;these include high-temperature sealing and operation lifetime.One effective solution is to lower operation temperature,resulting in a lower requirement for sealing and better stability.Furthermore,the commercialization and industrialization processes of perovskite membranes strongly rely on the large-scale fabrication method.

In the last few years,many new mixed-conducting materials have been developed.However most of these materials operate at a high temperature,normally higher than 700°C,in order to obtain the desired oxygen flux.Clearly,a membrane that can operate at a low temperature while simultaneously having a competitive oxygen permeation as compared with a membrane that operates at a high temperature would be one of the most effective routes to ease energy consumption and pollution emission.It is commonly accepted that the metal elements of the A or B site of the typical ABO3 structure,along with their stoichiometric coef ficients, are significant in determining the properties of perovskite-type oxides[9].Hence,most studies focus on the effects of different elements on membrane performance.In 2016,Zhu et al.[82]reported on a new route for designing membrane materials for low-temperature permeation by the rational doping of fluorion(F-)in a perovskite oxide(Fig.7(a)).The doped fluorion reduced the valence electron density of the oxygen ion and hence weakened the B-O-B chemical bonds,thereby creating a fast O2-transport path and facilitating oxygen permeation.The oxygen flux of fluorion-doped SrCo0.9Nb0.1O3-δF0.1(SCNF)and Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δF0.1(BSCFF)perovskite oxy fluoride membranes was more than two and three times greater,respectively,than those of undoped SrCo0.9Nb0.1O3-δ(SCN)and Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF)membranes at 600 °C(Fig.7(b)).Many problems can be solved by operating at a lower temperature.However,for long-term operation,kinetic matching between the reaction and separation is crucial in determining the reactor performance;therefore,further research into their synergistic control are required.To date,the materials that are available for lowtemperature application are far from sufficient.The development of materials for low-temperature membranes is an essential direction for future efforts.Significant achievements would be feasible if process intensification was employed in this area.In addition to heat,alternative forms and sources of energy input,such as microwaves and electric fields,could be used to intensify the separation for low-temperature applications.

Fig.7.(a)The cubic crystal structure of a perovskite oxy fluoride material;(b)a comparison of the oxygen permeation fluxes of a perovskite disk membrane and a perovskite oxy fluoride disk membrane at 600°C[82].

Most existing studies in this area use a disk-like membrane for material screening,since such membranes are relatively easy to fabricate.Planar membranes are also used in large-scale oxygen production.However,the most significant problem is the sealing,as the membrane and sealant are in the high-temperature zone.Another major drawback is the possibility of mismatching between the membrane and sealant.As elucidated in Section 2.1,HF membranes are preferable for practical applications,as they can undertake sealing outside of the high-temperature zone.The typical fabrication procedure of perovskite HFs comprises the following steps(Fig.8(a)):①the high-temperature synthesis of perovskite powder(usually > 700°C)via solid-state reaction or a wetchemistry route;②phase inversion to spin the HF precursor;and③high-temperature sintering.These processes are labor-,energy-,and time-consuming as well as being environmentally unfriendly;in addition,it is usually impossible to precisely control the cation stoichiometry of the perovskite oxides.Thus,simple and reliable fabrication remains a major challenge.Zhu et al.[83]proposed a one-step thermal-processing approach that directly introduces raw chemicals(e.g.,oxides or carbonates rather than as-prepared perovskite oxides)into the phase inversion;next,the perovskite hollow fibers are obtained via a single thermalprocessing step,which accomplishes the in situ conversion of the raw chemicals into perovskite oxides(Fig.8(b)).This approach successfully avoids the reaction of perovskite oxide with the solvent or non-solvent used in HF fabrication and achieves a controlled stoichiometry.Consequently,the oxygen flux obtained in the fabricated HF is about 2-100 times greater than that of the HF fabricated via the traditional method.This one-step thermal processing is actually an in situ synthesis and sintering process.Obtaining a good match between the solid-state reaction rates in synthesis and the sintering rates is also a critical issue,so more research into optimizing the coupling process and the sintering parameters is necessary.

3.Porous ceramic membrane reactors

This section provides an introduction to the progress that has been achieved in the development of porous ceramic membrane reactors.It covers the classification of porous CMR configurations and major considerations for application-oriented ceramic membrane design,especially for ultra fine or nano-sized catalysts.

3.1.Porous ceramic membrane reactor configurations

Fig.8.A schematic of perovskite HF fabrication approaches.(a)A conventional approach with two-step thermal processing;(b)a one-step thermal-processing approach[81].

2.改进巡视工作方式方法。进一步提高巡视报告质量,对被巡视单位的巡视报告,要站在全局的高度,把问题找准,深刻剖析深层次的原因,有针对性地提出意见建议;对被巡视单位领导班子及成员的评价报告,按照组织部门考察干部的标准起草,力求全面准确、高质量、高水平。进一步规范完善巡视工作从进驻到反馈、回访等一系列巡视公文的格式体例,健全巡视中发现问题和线索的台账,强化巡视档案的收集整理,提高巡视基础工作水平。合理安排、有效把握巡视进度,优化精减进驻时间,提高巡视效率和质量。

In an ordinary continuous- flow reactor,reactant distribution is crucial for kinetic performance.Therefore,a membrane reactor that combines the reactant distribution with catalyst separation is expected to enhance the product selectivity and yield.Two porous ceramic tubular membranes were employed in this design,with one acting as a reactant distributor controlling the supply of the reactants and the other acting as a membrane separator for the in situ separation of catalysts from the products[92].Fig.9(c)illustrates the dual-membrane configuration.The performance of phenol hydroxylation with hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)over a titanium silicalite-1(TS-1)catalyst in the dual-membrane reactor was evaluated[92].Compared with traditional H2O2 feeding modes,the dual-membrane configuration provides a higher dihydroxybenzene selectivity and a catalyst rejection rate of almost 100%.This study demonstrated the advantages of the dualmembrane reactor in enhancing reaction selectivity,product separation,and catalyst separation simultaneously in a continuous heterogeneous catalytic reactor.

A porous membrane can also be a good distributor for gasphase reactants.Chen et al.[93]successfully controlled the addition of gaseous oxygen using a porous membrane as a distributor in phenol hydroxylation.Small,well-distributed oxygen bubbles generated by the porous ceramic membrane are expected to enhance the volumetric oxygen and gas-liquid mass transfer.To further improve the gas-liquid mass-transfer performance,Chen et al.[94]proposed a novel dual-membrane airlift reactor system for cyclohexanone ammoximation over TS-1.In this configuration,as shown in Fig.10,the addition of gaseous ammonia was controlled by a ceramic porous tubular membrane(using the submerged configuration),and numerous small bubbles were produced.To separate the catalyst from the products,a membrane separator(a tubular porous ceramic membrane using a side-stream configuration)was employed.An obvious advantage of this configuration is the good mixing of gas and liquid,which leads to an enhanced gas-liquid mass transfer.

3.2.Porous ceramic membrane reactor design

In a membrane reactor design,combining the existing reactor with a commercial membrane with minimum modification would be the most effective strategy.However,commercial membranes may not meet the individual requirements of the application objects.Therefore,membranes must be designed and optimized for individual application,which is the concept behind application-oriented ceramic membrane design[95].To solve problems encountered in engineering applications,this strategy develops a performance-microstructure model and a membrane structure-material model in order to optimize the membrane microstructure and the membrane fabrication,respectively.Considering the diverse sizes of the catalysts that are used in different applications,the separation efficiency and thus the CMR performance largely depend on the membrane microstructures,which include pore size and pore-size distribution,porosity,and thickness.In this section,heterogeneous catalysis based on ultra fine catalysts and heterogeneous catalysis based on nano-sized catalysts are taken as model systems in order to illustrate CMR design from a performance-microstructure perspective.

3.2.1.CMR design for an ultra fine catalyst

The use of the TS-1 catalyst,which has a high catalytic activity and selectivity,has attracted extensive attention[96,97].In general,the particle size of TS-1 is 0.1-0.3μm,which is too fine for effective removal from the reaction slurry by either gravity settling or porous tube filtration.Tubular membranes are commonly used in porous CMRs due to their high mechanical strength,and these membranes are commonly applied in TS-1 separation[86,88,97,98].However,the relatively large diameter and thick wall of such membranes result in a low surface-area-to-volume ratio and a large mass-transfer resistance,and hence in a low separation efficiency for the entire membrane system.A ceramic HF membrane distributor for the distribution of reactants on the microscale in phenol hydroxylation has been proposed(Fig.11)[99].The small pore size of the HF membrane facilitated the generation of droplets on the microscale.Considering the particle size of TS-1,droplets with a similar size to the catalysts would benefit the reaction conversation and selectivity due to an increased contact area between the droplets and the catalyst particles.In contrast to the drop-by-drop mode(in which a reagent is added dropwise)and the one-lot mode(in which a reagent is added all at once),the hydrogen peroxide reactant was distributed by a ceramic HF membrane with a reduced membrane pore size(2.0-0.3μm),resulting in significant enhancement of the dihydroxybenzene selectivity.The performance of the membrane reactor was demonstrated to be closely associated with the thickness of finger-like and sponge-like pores in the ceramic HF membrane[99].Different ceramic HF membrane structures were compared in terms of phenol conversion and dihydroxybenzene selectivity.A relatively narrow pore-size distribution and an appropriate gradient in the pore structure were found to favor the uniform formation and distribution of reactant on the microscale and nanoscale.

式中越大,表明决策专家et给出的决策信息与其他决策专家给出的决策信息冲突越大,反之越小。不失一般性,可令冲突调节交互次数为g,最大冲突调节交互次数为G,则应急群决策冲突检测与调整算法如图1所示。该算法经过多次交互过程能有效降低决策专家群体的冲突水平,提升意见的一致性。

Fig.9.Classic configurations of a porous CMR.(a)Side-stream configuration;(b)submerged configuration;(c)dual-membrane configuration.

Fig.10.A dual-membrane airlift reactor system[94].P:pressure;T:temperature.

Fig.11.A schematic of a ceramic HF membrane-based reactant distributor[98].

Several porous CMR models have been initially established to describe the relationship between membrane permeability and microstructure[95,100].However,challenges remain in establishing models that describe HF membranes,due to their unique and more complex microstructure in comparison with ordinary tubular membranes.

3.2.2.CMR design for a nano-sized catalyst

通过重庆市级统筹规划,在区级落地,打造“‘一带一路’现代农业国际合作示范区”。依托中欧班列(重庆)起点辐射的地理空间和品牌效应,加强融入“一带一路”走国际化道路,推动重庆市本土农业资源、文化元素符号和国际高端要素融合,创新驱动乡村振兴和内陆开放高地建设融合。

想要获得志愿服务证书。在587名调查对象中仅有52名调查对象以获得志愿服务证书为目的而选择参加志愿服务活动,据了解,国内有不少大学评定奖助学金的标准中的一条,就是该生的德育教育成绩,而德育教育成绩则是以参加各类课外活动并获得证书作为德育教育的成绩(笔者的学校就是如此),所以,这一部分大学生参加志愿服务活动的主观原因是排除在以上几种原因之外而单独独立出来的,大学生参加志愿服务活动就只冲着志愿者证书去的。

Because of their high mechanical strength and easy fabrication,tubular membranes werefirst chosen for porous membrane reactors with immobilized nano-sized catalysts.However,tubular membrane supports cannot compete with powder supports in terms of the surface-area-to-volume ratio.A membrane configuration with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is therefore preferable.As discussed previously,the most important features of HF membranes are their much higher surface-area-to-volume ratio,in comparison with most of their disk-like and tubular counterparts,and their much lower mass-transfer resistance.As a support,HF ceramic membranes can provide more surface area per unit of volume,and can significantly benefit the deposition of nano-sized particles.The hydrogenation rate of an HF CMR loaded with Pd is at least 44%higher than that of a tubular CMR loaded with Pd[103].

3.3.Current challenges and difficulties in porous CMRs

Some successful industrial applications of porous CMRs have been achieved.A side-stream membrane reactor was designed in Zhejiang province,China,for cyclohexanone ammoximation over TS-1(Fig.12(a)).The membrane model consists of 241 tubular porous ceramic membranes through which the catalyst can be retained and recycled(Fig.12(b)).Less than 1 mg·L-1 of catalyst was found in the permeation,and the conversion and selectivity were higher than 99.5%.The greatest advantage of a ceramic membrane is that it can be easily cleaned using strong basic and acidic solutions,which is all but impossible in a polymeric membrane system.Another industrial application of a porous CMR has been achieved for p-aminophenol production.A micro filtration membrane based on a porous ceramic membrane(from Jiangsu Jiuwu Hi-Tech Co.,Ltd.)was successfully employed to recover nanosized catalysts.This project yields a p-aminophenol production of 30 000 t·a-1 in Anhui province,China(Fig.12(c)).Many issues are yet to be resolved from the industrial point of view,especial in terms of reactor scaling up.Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)simulation would be a powerful tool to realize the realtime measurement of multiscale dynamic behavior that includes the multiphase flow and the synergy between the reaction and transfer.Most CFD models focus on the membrane separation process[108-113].However,CFD can also be used to predict the fluid flow pattern with the introduction of a ceramic membrane[114].For example,in a three-blade impeller system,the maximum homogeneity of solid particles was achieved at a blade angle of 30°.The model provides a visualization of the flow field distribution in a multiphase system along with in-depth details about the fluid flow.

Fig.12.Industrial applications of porous CMRs.(a)A side-stream membrane reactor for cyclohexanone ammoximation;(b)a 241-channel membrane model;(c)p-aminophenol production.

4.Conclusions and prospects

Many recent investigations have demonstrated that ceramicbased CMRs show great potential in a wide range of applications for chemical reactions and separations under harsh conditions in terms of both temperature and the chemical environment.The aim of this article was to review current research—mostly from the last decade—on the two most important types of CMR:those based on the dense mixed-conducting membrane for gas separation,and those based on the porous ceramic membrane for heterogeneous catalytic processes.This article mainly focused on new developments and innovative uses of these CMRs from the perspective of membrane reactor design and optimization.CMRs do not only integrate various membrane operations simply into one unit;they also intensify the process by operating in a synergistic fashion.Examples of reactions that benefit from dense CMRs include the POM to syngas,steam reforming to produce hydrogen,and the TDCD.Examples of reactions that benefit from porous CMRs include the heterogeneous catalysis of phenol hydroxylation with hydrogen peroxide or oxygen,cyclohexanone ammoximation,and the hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol.Emerging challenges and great opportunities still exist for both types of CMR,as described below.

4.1.Challenges affecting dense CMRs

The following challenges are still encountered in the industrialization of dense CMRs:

(2)页面除噪模块。该模块主要用于对抓取的信息进行进一步筛选,剔除获取页面中的无价值信息。由于主题爬虫选取的页面通常都带有一些辅助信息,如:网页界面或用户的交流信息、广告等附加图文信息、HTML 界面的CSS 代码等,删除这些不相关的信息,有利用价值信息的获取。

(1)Engineering the membrane.Membrane architecture is important in determining the performance of a CMR.Disk-like(or planar),tubular,and HF membranes are good choices.The major considerations in good membrane geometry are the ease of high-temperature sealing,permeation flux,and mechanical strength.The biggest problem for the disk-like membrane is high-temperature sealing,which is also the most crucial challenge for other high-temperature membranes.Clearly,tubular and HF membranes are good candidates;however,both still have drawbacks in terms of permeation flux(membrane thickness)and mechanical strength,respectively.A combination of co-sintering and spin-spray techniques to fabricate asymmetric tubular membranes and the novel design of multichannel HF membranes are expected to be the most effective solutions.However,the precise control of structures and components during fabrication and sintering still represents a challenge.

我们国家在工业电气方面出口增加,占我国外贸出口比重也不断上升,反映出我们国家产业和贸易方面的导向,沿着高新技术产品方向发展。我们在这些产业当中还是处于进口与出口交替的阶段,更多的产品处于中级产品阶段,我们国家关于高精尖技术产品的出口以及一些电器工业产品的优势还没有完全建立起来,其产品代加工贸易还会在很长一段时间存在,与发达国家相比我们国家的机械工业运输设备规模比较小,仍然有很多的潜力、发展动力存在。

(2)Lowering the operation temperature.A lower operation temperature would result in dramatic benefits,such as better stability,easier sealing,fewer equipment requirements,lower energy consumption,lower pollution,and greater safety.In addition to considerations of membrane geometry(e.g.,ultra-thin separation layers),the development of membrane materials with low cost and high performance at low temperatures is an effective route.Traditional strategies associated with A or B site tailoring cannot fully meet these requirements.Oxygen-site doping with fluorion has been considered,and was demonstrated to be a good choice.However,the stability of the fluorion-containing material,especially within a complex environment(e.g.,in the presence of oxidizing,reducing,and/or sulfur-containing species)requires further evaluation and optimization.

(3)Large-scale membrane fabrication.Simple and reliable fabrication remains the greatest challenge for the commercialization of membrane reactors.Traditional HF membrane fabrication has been labeled as a labor-,energy-,and time-consuming process.One-step thermal-processing techniques obviously provide a breakthrough opportunity in terms of low cost and reliable large-scale membrane fabrication.In fact,one-step thermal processing is an in situ synthesis and sintering process.Obtaining a good match between the solid-state reaction rates in synthesis and the sintering rates is a crucial issue,and additional research into the optimization of the coupling process and sintering parameters is therefore required.

4.2.Challenges affecting porous CMRs

The following challenges are still encountered in the industrialization of porous CMRs:

(1)Membrane reactor design.The major drawback of the sidestream configuration is the adsorption of catalyst in the loop,whereas the submerged configuration has many advantages that include a small footprint,reduced catalyst adsorption,and signi ficantly reduced energy consumption.Better performance was obtained in a dual-membrane reactor,which introduces an additional membrane distributor,due to good distribution of the reactants.Combining a dual-membrane reactor with an airlift membrane reactor provides another opportunity in gas-liquid heterogeneous catalysis by improving the gas-liquid mass transfer.

(2)Engineering the membrane.Tubular membranes are commonly used and studied for use in porous CMRs.However,their relatively large diameter and thick wall result in low surfacearea-to-volume ratios and large mass-transfer resistance,and hence in a low separation efficiency for the entire membrane system.HF membranes appear to overcome these limitations.For practical application,an appropriate pore size and distribution are essential in order to generate uniform droplets on the microscale.Because of the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of HF membranes,they can support nano-sized catalysts.A combination of surface silanization with the flow-through method results in a uniform and smaller particle size and in better adhesion of a nano Pd catalyst on an HF membrane.

(3)Process simulation.Most CFD models consider the catalytic reaction and the membrane separation process separately.Therefore,integrally linking the two processes is essential in establishing CFD models that help us to understand the process in a way that is close to reality.Three levels of mass transfer exist in a membrane reactor:microscale,mesoscale,and macroscale mass transfers.A combination of these mass transfers and chemical reactions with multiphase hydrodynamics and kinetic models will be one of the most important research directions for porous CMRs.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(20990222,21006047,21706117,and 21706118),the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu(BK20170978 and BK20170970),the State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering(ZK201609),and the Innovative Research Team Program by the Ministry of Education of China(IRT17R54).

Compliance with ethics guidelines

Guangru Zhang,Wanqin Jin,and Nanping Xu declare that they have no conflict of interest or financial conflicts to disclose.

References

[1]Dixon AG.Recent research in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors.Int J Chem React Eng 2003;1(1):R6.

[2]Sanchez Marcano JG,Tsotsis TT.Catalytic membranes and membrane reactors.Weinheim:Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co.KGaA;2004.

[3]Thurs field A,Murugan A,Franca R,Metcalfe IS.Chemical looping and oxygen permeable ceramic membranes for hydrogen production—a review.Energy Environ Sci 2012;5(6):7421-59.

[4]Dong X,Jin W,Xu N,Li K.Dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications.Chem Commun(Camb)2011;47(39):10886-902.

[5]Bouwmeester HJM.Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion.Catal Today 2003;82(1-4):141-50.

[6]Yang W,Wang H,Zhu X,Lin L.Development and application of oxygen permeable membrane in selective oxidation of light alkanes.Top Catal 2005;35(1-2):155-67.

[7]Liu Y,Tan X,Li K.Mixed conducting ceramics for catalytic membrane processing.Catal Rev Sci Eng 2006;48(2):145-98.

[8]Wei Y,Yang W,Caro J,Wang H.Dense ceramic oxygen permeable membranes and catalytic membrane reactors.Chem Eng J 2013;220:185-203.

[9]Bouwmeester HJM,Burggraaf AJ.Dense ceramic membranes for oxygen separation.In:The CRC handbook of solid state electrochemistry.Boca Raton:CRC Press;1997.p.481-553.

[10]Sunarso J,Baumann S,Serra JM,Meulenberg WA,Liu S,Lin YS,et al.Mixed ionic-electronic conducting(MIEC)ceramic-based membranes for oxygen separation.J Membr Sci 2008;320(1-2):13-41.

[11]Ollis DF.Integrating photocatalysis and membrane technologies for water treatment.Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003;984:65-84.

[12]Molinari R,Palmisano L.Photocatalytic membrane reactors in water purification.In:Lehr JH,Keeley JW,Lehr JK,editors.Water encyclopedia:domestic,municipal and industrial water supply and waste disposal.New Jersey:John Wiley&Sons,Inc.;2005.p.791-7.

[13]Augugliaro V,Litter M,Palmisano L,Soria J.The combination of heterogeneous photocatalysis with chemical and physical operations:a tool for improving the photoprocess performance.J Photochem Photobiol Photochem Rev 2006;7(4):127-44.

[14]Mozia S.Photocatalytic membrane reactors(PMRs)in water and wastewater treatment,a review.Separ Purif Tech 2010;73(2):71-91.

[15]Geffroy PM,Reichmann M,Kilmann L,Jouin J,Richet N,Chartier T.Identification of the rate-determining step in oxygen transport through La(1-x)Sr x Fe(1-y)Ga y O3-δperovskite membranes.J Membr Sci 2015;476:340-7.

[16]Fernández-González R,Molina T,Savvin S,Moreno R,Makradi A,Nunez P.Characterization and fabrication of LSCF tapes.J Eur Ceram Soc 2014;34(4):953-9.

[17]Reichmann M,Geffroy PM,Fouletier J,Richet N,Chartier T.Effect of cation substitution in the A site on the oxygen semi-permeation flux in La0.5A0.5Fe0.7Ga0.3O3-δ and La0.5A0.5Fe0.7Co0.3O3-δ dense perovskite membranes with A=Ca,Sr and Ba(part I).J Power Sources 2014;261:175-83.

[18]Repasky JM,Foster EP,Armstrong PA,Stein VE,Anderson LL.ITM oxygen development for advanced oxygen supply.San Francisco:Gasification Technologies Council;2011.

[19]Gromada M,Trawczynski J,Wierzbicki M,Zawadzki M.Effect of forming techniques on efficiency of tubular oxygen separating membranes.Ceram Int 2017;43(1):256-61.

[20]Wu Z,Hidayati Othman N,Zhang G,Liu Z.Jin W,Li K.Effects of fabrication processes on oxygen permeation of Nb2O5-doped SrCo0.8Fe0.2O3-δmicrotubular membranes.J Membr Sci 2013;442:1-7.

[21]Salehi M,Pfaff EM,Junior RM,Bergmann CP,Diethelm S,Neururer C,et al.Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ(BSCF)feedstock development and optimization for thermoplastic forming of thin planar and tubular oxygen separation membranes.J Membr Sci 2013;443:237-45.

[22]Cruz RT,Bragança SR,Bergmann CP,Graule T,Clemens F.Preparation of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) feedstocks with different thermoplastic binders and their use in the production of thin tubular membranes by extrusion.Ceram Int 2014;40(5):7531-8.

[23]Zhang C,Xu Z,Chang X,Zhang Z,Jin W.Preparation and characterization of mixed-conducting thin tubular membrane.J Membr Sci 2007;299(1-2):261-7.

[24]Xu N,Li S,Jin W,Shi J,Lin Y.Experimental and modeling study on tubular dense membranes for oxygen permeation.AIChE J 1999;45(12):2519-26.

[25]Nagendra N,Bandopadhyay S.Room and elevated temperature strength of perovskite membrane tubes.J Eur Ceram Soc 2003;23(9):1361-8.

[26]Li S,Jin W,Huang P,Xu N,Shi J,Lin Y.Tubular lanthanum cobaltite perovskite type membrane for oxygen permeation.J Membr Sci 2000;166(1):51-61.

[27]Kaletsch A,Pfaff EM,Broeckmann C,Modigell M,Nauels N.Pilot module for oxygen separation with BSCF membranes.In:2nd International Conference on Energy Process Engineering; 2011 Jun 20-22; Frankfurt,Germany.Frankfurt:DECHEMA;2011.

[28]Tan X,Wang Z,Meng B,Meng X,Li K.Pilot-scale production of oxygen from air using perovskite hollow fibre membranes.J Membr Sci 2010;352(1-2):189-96.

[29]Meng B,Wang Z,Tan X,Liu S.SrCo0.9Sc0.1O3-δperovskite hollow fibre membranes for air separation at intermediate temperatures.J Eur Ceram Soc 2009;29(13):2815-22.

[30]Vivet A,Geffroy PM,Coudert V,Fouletier J,Richet N,Chartier T.In fluence of glass and gold sealants materials on oxygen permeation performances in La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.7Ga0.3O3-δperovskite membranes.J Membr Sci 2011;366(1-2):132-8.

[31]Chen Y,Qian B,Hao Y,Liu S,Tade M,Shao Z.In fluence of sealing materials on the oxygen permeation fluxes of some typical oxygen ion conducting ceramic membranes.J Membr Sci 2014;470:102-11.

[32]Faaland S,Einarsrud MA,Grande T.Reactions between calcium-and strontium-substituted lanthanum cobaltite ceramic membranes and calcium silicate sealing materials.Chem Mater 2001;13(3):723-32.

[33]Qi X,Akin FT,Lin Y.Ceramic-glass composite high temperature seals for dense ionic-conducting ceramic membranes.J Membr Sci 2001;193(2):185-93.

[34]Bouwmeester HJM,Kruidhof H,Burggraaf AJ.Importance of the surface exchange kinetics as rate limiting step in oxygen permeation through mixedconducting oxides.Solid State Ion 1994;72:185-94.

[35]Chang X,Zhang C,Jin W,Xu N.Match of thermal performances between the membrane and the support for supported dense mixed-conducting membranes.J Membr Sci 2006;285(1-2):232-8.

[36]Jin W,Li S,Huang P,Xu N,Shi J.Preparation of an asymmetric perovskite-type membrane and its oxygen permeability.J Membr Sci 2001;185(2):237-43.

[37]Dong X,Zhang G,Liu Z,Zhong Z,Jin W,Xu N.CO2-tolerant mixed conducting oxide for catalytic membrane reactor.J Membr Sci 2009;340(1-2):141-7.

[38]Wu Z,Wang B,Li K.Functional LSM-ScSZ/NiO-ScSZ dual-layer hollow fibres for partial oxidation of methane.Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011;36(9):5334-41.

[39]Liu T,Chen Y,Fang S,Lei L,Wang Y,Ren C,et al.A dual-phase bilayer oxygen permeable membrane with hierarchically porous structure fabricated by freeze-drying tape-casting method.J Membr Sci 2016;520:354-63.

[40]Liu ZK,Zhu JW,Jin WQ.Preparation and characterization of mixedconducting supported hollow fiber membrane.J Inorg Mater 2015;30(6):621-6.

[41]Meng X,Ding W,Jin R,Wang H,Gai Y,Ji F,et al.Two-step fabrication of BaCo0.7Fe0.2Nb0.1O3-δasymmetric oxygen permeable membrane by dip coating.J Membr Sci 2014;450:291-8.

[42]Liu Z,Zhang G,Dong X,Jiang W,Jin W,Xu N.Fabrication of asymmetric tubular mixed-conducting dense membranes by a combined spin-spraying and co-sintering process.J Membr Sci 2012;415-416:313-9.

[43]Wang H,Werth S,Schiestel T,Caro J.Perovskite hollow- fiber membranes for the production of oxygen-enriched air.Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2005;44(42):6906-9.

[44]Tan X,Liu Y,Li K.Mixed conducting ceramic hollow- fiber membranes for air separation.AIChE J 2005;51(7):1991-2000.

[45]Leo A,Smart S,Liu S,da Costa JCD.High performance perovskite hollow fibres for oxygen separation.J Membr Sci 2011;368(1-2):64-8.

[46]Chi Y,Li T,Wang B,Wu Z,Morphology Li K.performance and stability of multi-bore capillary La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δoxygen transport membranes.J Membr Sci 2017;529:224-33.

[47]Zhu J,Guo S,Liu G,Liu Z,Zhang Z,Jin W.A robust mixed-conducting multichannel hollow fiber membrane reactor.AIChE J 2015;61(8):2592-9.

[48]Zhu J,Liu Z,Guo S,Jin W.In fluence of permeation modes on oxygen permeability of the multichannel mixed-conducting hollow fibre membrane.Chem Eng Sci 2015;122:614-21.

[49]Zhu J,Dong Z,Liu Z,Zhang K,Zhang G,Jin W.Multichannel mixed-conducting hollow fiber membranes for oxygen separation.AIChE J 2014;60(6):1969-76.

[50]Saracco G,Neomagus HWJP,Versteeg GF,Swaaij WPM.High-temperature membrane reactors:potential and problems.Chem Eng Sci 1999;54(13-4):1997-2017.

[51]Tsai CY,Dixon AG,Moser WR,Ma YH.Dense perovskite membrane reactors for partial oxidation of methane to syngas.AIChE J 1997;43(S11):2741-50.

[52]Wang H,Tablet C,Feldhoff A,Caro J.A cobalt-free oxygen-permeable membrane based on the perovskite-type oxide Ba0.5Sr0.5Zn0.2Fe0.8O3-δ.Adv Mater 2005;17(14):1785-8.

[53]Shao Z,Dong H,Xiong G,Cong Y,Yang W.Performance of a mixed-conducting ceramic membrane reactor with high oxygen permeability for methane conversion.J Membr Sci 2001;183(2):181-92.

[54]Jin W,Li S,Huang P,Xu N,Shi J,Lin Y.Tubular lanthanum cobaltite perovskite-type membrane reactors for partial oxidation of methane to syngas.J Membr Sci 2000;166(1):13-22.

[55]Jiang H,Wang H,Werth S,Schiestel T,Caro J.Simultaneous production of hydrogen and synthesis gas by combining water splitting with partial oxidation of methane in a hollow- fiber membrane reactor.Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2008;47(48):9341-4.

[56]Tan X,Pang Z,Gu Z,Liu S.Catalytic perovskite hollow fibre membrane reactors for methane oxidative coupling.J Membr Sci 2007;302(1-2):109-14.

[57]Tan X,Li K.Oxidative coupling of methane in a perovskite hollow- fiber membrane reactor.Ind Eng Chem Res 2006;45(1):142-9.

[58]Wang H,Cong Y,Yang W.Oxidative coupling of methane in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δtubular membrane reactors.Catal Today 2005;104(2-4):160-7.

[59]Zeng Y,Lin Y,Swartz SL.Perovskite-type ceramic membrane:synthesis,oxygen permeation and membrane reactor performance for oxidative coupling of methane.J Membr Sci 1998;150(1):87-98.

[60]Elshof JET,Bouwmeester HJM,Verweij H.Oxidative coupling of methane in a mixed-conducting perovskite membrane reactor.Appl Catal A Gen 1995;130(2):195-212.

[61]Lobera MP,Escolástico S,Serra JM.High ethylene production through oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane membrane reactors based on fast oxygen-ion conductors.ChemCatChem 2011;3(9):1503-8.

[62]Jiang H,Cao Z,Schirrmeister S,Schiestel T,Caro J.A coupling strategy to produce hydrogen and ethylene in a membrane reactor.Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2010;49(33):5656-60.

[63]Czuprat O,Werth S,Caro J,Schiestel T.Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane in a perovskite membrane reactor with multi-step oxygen insertion.AIChE J 2010;56(9):2390-6.

[64]Czuprat O,Werth S,Schirrmeister S,Schiestel T,Caro J.Ole fin production by a multistep oxidative dehydrogenation in a perovskite hollow- fiber membrane reactor.ChemCatChem 2009;1(3):401-5.

[65]Balachandran U,Lee TH,Dorris SE.Hydrogen production by water dissociation using mixed conducting dense ceramic membranes.Int J Hydrogen Energy 2007;32(4):451-6.

[66]Nalbandian L,Evdou A,Zaspalis V.La1-x Sr x MO3(M=Mn,Fe)perovskites as materials for thermochemical hydrogen production in conventional and membrane reactors.Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009;34(17):7162-72.

[67]Song S,Moon JH,Ryu HW,Lee TH,Dorris SE,Balachandran U.Non-galvanic hydrogen production by water splitting using cermet membranes.J Ceram Process Res 2008;9(2):123-5.

[68]Evdou A,Nalbandian L,Zaspalis VT.Perovskite membrane reactor for continuous and isothermal redox hydrogen production from the dissociation of water.J Membr Sci 2008;325(2):704-11.

[69]Itoh N,Sanchez MA,Xu WC,Haraya K,Hongo M.Application of a membrane reactor system to thermal-decomposition of CO2.J Membr Sci 1993;77(2-3):245-53.

[70]Jin W,Zhang C,Chang X,Fan Y,Xing W,Xu N.Efficient catalytic decomposition of CO2 to CO and O2 over Pd/mixed-conducting oxide catalyst in an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor.Environ Sci Technol 2008;42(8):3064-8.

[71]Jiang H,Wang H,Liang F,Werth S,Schiestel T,Caro J.Direct decomposition of nitrous oxide to nitrogen by in situ oxygen removal with a perovskite membrane.Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2009;48(16):2983-6.

[72]Franca RV,Thurs field A,Metcalfe IS.La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δmicrotubular membranes for hydrogen production from water splitting.J Membr Sci 2012;389:173-81.

[73]Zhang K,Zhang G,Liu Z,Zhu J,Zhu N,Jin W.Enhanced stability of membrane reactor for thermal decomposition of CO2 via porous-dense-porous triplelayer composite membrane.J Membr Sci 2014;471:9-15.

[74]Liang W,Megarajan SK,Liang F,Zhang Y,He G,Liu Z,et al.Coupling of N2O decomposition with CO2 reforming of CH4 in novel cobalt-free BaFe0.9Zr0.05Al0.05O3-δoxygen transport membrane reactor.Chem Eng J 2016;305:176-81.

[75]Jiang H,Wang H,Liang F,Werth S,Schirrmeister S,Schiestel T,et al.Improved water dissociation and nitrous oxide decomposition by in situ oxygen removal in perovskite catalytic membrane reactor.Catal Today 2010;156(3-4):187-90.

[76]Jiang W,Zhang G,Liu Z,Zhang K,Jin W.A novel porous-dense dual-layer composite membrane reactor with long-term stability.AIChE J 2013;59(11):4355-63.

[77]Zhang C,Chang X,Dong X,Jin W,Xu N.The oxidative stream reforming of methane to syngas in a thin tubular mixed-conducting membrane reactor.J Membr Sci 2008;320(1-2):401-6.

[78]Zhu N,Dong X,Liu Z,Zhang G,Jin W,Xu N.Toward highly-effective and sustainable hydrogen production:bio-ethanol oxidative steam reforming coupled with water splitting in a thin tubular membrane reactor.Chem Commun(Camb)2012;48(57):7137-9.

[79]Zhang C,Jin W,Yang C,Xu N.Decomposition of CO2 coupled with POM in a thin tubular oxygen-permeable membrane reactor.Catal Today 2009;148(3-4):298-302.

[80]Zhang C,Chang X,Fan Y,Jin W,Xu N.Improving performance of a dense membrane reactor for thermal decomposition of CO2 via surface modification.Ind Eng Chem Res 2007;46(7):2000-5.

[81]Jin W,Zhang C,Zhang P,Fan Y,Xu N.Thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide coupled with POM in a membrane reactor.AIChE J 2006;52(7):2545-50.

[82]Zhu J,Liu G,Liu Z,Chu Z,Jin W,Xu N.Unprecedented perovskite oxy fluoride membranes with high-efficiency oxygen ion transport paths for lowtemperature oxygen permeation.Adv Mater 2016;28(18):3511-5.

[83]Zhu J,Zhang G,Liu G,Liu Z,Jin W,Xu N.Perovskite hollow fibers with precisely controlled cation stoichiometry via one-step thermal processing.Adv Mater 2017;29(18).Epub 2017 Mar 6.

[84]Zou Y,Jiang H,Liu Y,Gao H,Xing W,Chen R.Highly efficient synthesis of cumene via benzene isopropylation over nano-sized beta zeolite in a submerged ceramic membrane reactor.Separ Purif Tech 2016;170:49-56.

[85]Zou Y,Jiang H,Gao H,Chen R.Efficient recovery of ultra fine catalysts from oil/water/solid three-phase system by ceramic micro filtration membrane.Korean J Chem Eng 2016;33(8):2453-9.

[86]Jiang H,Jiang X,She F,Wang Y,Xing W,Chen R.Insights into membrane fouling of a side-stream ceramic membrane reactor for phenol hydroxylation over ultra fine TS-1.Chem Eng J 2014;239:373-80.

[87]Mao H,Chen R,Xing W,Jin W.Organic solvent-free process for cyclohexanone ammoximation by a ceramic membrane distributor.Chem Eng Technol 2016;39(5):883-90.

[88]Jiang X,She F,Jiang H,Chen R,Xing W,Jin W.Continuous phenol hydroxylation over ultra fine TS-1 in a side-stream ceramic membrane reactor.Korean J Chem Eng 2013;30(4):852-9.

[89]Fane AG.Submerged membranes.In:Li NN,Fan AG,Winston Ho WS,Matsuura T,editors.Advanced membrane technology and applications.New Jersey:John Wiley&Sons,Inc.;2008.p.239-70.

[90]Zhong Z,Xing W,Jin W,Xu N.Adhesion of nanosized nickel catalysts in the nanocatalysis/UF system.AIChE J 2007;53(5):1204-10.

[91]Chen R,Du Y,Wang Q,Xing W,Jin W,Xu N.Effect of catalyst morphology on the performance of submerged nanocatalysis/membrane filtration system.Ind Eng Chem Res 2009;48(14):6600-7.

[92]Jiang H,Meng L,Chen R,Jin W,Xing W,Xu N.A novel dual-membrane reactor for continuous heterogeneous oxidation catalysis.Ind Eng Chem Res 2011;50(18):10458-64.

[93]Chen R,Bao Y,Xing W,Jin W,Xu N.Enhanced phenol hydroxylation with oxygen using a ceramic membrane distributor.Chin J Catal 2013;34(1):200-8.

[94]Chen R,Mao H,Zhang X,Xing W,Fan Y.A dual-membrane airlift reactor for cyclohexanone ammoximation over titanium silicalite-1.Ind Eng Chem Res 2014;53(15):6372-9.

[95]Xu N,Li W,Zhao Y,Xing W,Shi J.Theory and method of application-oriented ceramic membranes design(I).J Chem Ind Eng 2003;54(9):1284-9.

[96]Wells DH Jr,Delgass WN Jr,Thomson KT.Evidence of defect-promoted reactivity for epoxidation of propylene in titanosilicate(TS-1)catalysts:a DFT study.J Am Chem Soc 2004;126(9):2956-62.

[97]Shetti VN,Srinivas D,Ratnasamy P.Enhancement of chemoselectivity in epoxidation reactions over TS-1 catalysts by alkali and alkaline metal ions.J Mol Catal A-Chem 2004;210(1-2):171-8.

[98]Lu C,Chen R,Xing W,Jin W,Xu N.A submerged membrane reactor for continuous phenol hydroxylation over TS-1.AIChE J 2008;54(7):1842-9.

[99]Meng L,Guo H,Dong Z,Jiang H,Xing W,Jin W.Ceramic hollow fiber membrane distributor for heterogeneous catalysis:effects of membrane structure and operating conditions.Chem Eng J 2013;223:356-63.

[100]Li W,Zhao Y,Liu F,Xing W,Xu N,Shi J.Theory and method of applicationoriented ceramic membranes design(II).J Chem Ind Eng 2003;54(9):1290-4.

[101]Zhong Z,Li W,Xing W,Xu N.Cross flow filtration of nanosized catalysts suspension using ceramic membranes.Separ Purif Tech 2011;76(3):223-30.

[102]Chen R,Jiang Y,Xing W,Jin W.Fabrication and catalytic properties of palladium nanoparticles deposited on a silanized asymmetric ceramic support.Ind Eng Chem Res 2011;50(8):4405-11.

[103]Chen R,Jiang Y,Xing W,Jin W.Preparation of palladium nanoparticles deposited on a silanized hollow fiber ceramic membrane support and their catalytic properties.Ind Eng Chem Res 2013;52(14):5002-8.

[104]Li H,Jiang H,Chen R,Wang Y,Xing W.Enhanced catalytic properties of palladium nanoparticles deposited on a silanized ceramic membrane support with a flow-through method.Ind Eng Chem Res 2013;52(39):14099-106.

[105]Xu J,Bhattacharyya D.Modeling of Fe/Pd nanoparticle-based functionalized membrane reactor for PCB dechlorination at room temperature.J Phys Chem C 2008;112(25):9133-44.

[106]Ouyang L,Dotzauer DM,Hogg SR,Macanas J,Lahitte JF,Bruening ML.Catalytic hollow fiber membranes prepared using layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes and metal nanoparticles.Catal Today 2010;156(3-4):100-6.

[107]Dotzauer DM,Abusaloua A,Miachon S,Dalmon JA,Bruening ML.Wet air oxidation with tubular ceramic membranes modified with polyelectrolyte/Pt nanoparticle films.Appl Catal B 2009;91(1-2):180-8.

[108]Wiley DE,Fletcher DF.Computational fluid dynamics modelling of flow and permeation for pressure-driven membrane processes.Desalination 2002;145(1-3):183-6.

[109]Rahimi M,Madaeni SS,Abbasi K.CFD modeling of permeate flux in cross- flow micro filtration membrane.J Membr Sci 2005;255(1-2):23-31.

[110]Ghidossi R,Veyret D,Moulin P.Computational fluid dynamics applied to membranes:state of the art and opportunities.Chem Eng Process 2006;45(6):437-54.

[111]Coroneo M,Montante G,Catalano J,Paglianti A.Modelling the effect of operating conditions on hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a Pd-Ag membrane module for H2 purification.J Membr Sci 2009;343(1-2):34-41.

[112]Brannock M,De Wever H,Wang Y,Leslie G.Computational fluid dynamics simulations of MBRs:inside submerged versus outside submerged membranes.Desalination 2009;236(1-3):244-51.

[113]Brannock M,Leslie G,Wang Y,Buetehorn S.Optimising mixing and nutrient removal in membrane bioreactors:CFD modelling and experimental validation.Desalination 2010;250(2):815-8.

[114]Meng L,Cheng J,Jiang H,Yang C,Xing W,Jin W.Design and analysis of a submerged membrane reactor by CFD simulation.Chem Eng Technol 2013;36(11):1874-82.

Guangru Zhang,Wanqin Jin,Nanping Xu
《Engineering》 2018年第6期
《Engineering》2018年第6期文献
Engineering Fronts in 2018 作者:Fang Cai,Jiu-Ming Ji,Zhi-Qiang Jiang,Zhi-Rui Mu,Xiang Wu,Wen-Jiang Zheng,Wei-Xing Zhou,Shan-Tung Tu,Xuhong Qian
100%安全可靠
7X18小时在线支持
支付宝特邀商家
不成功全额退款